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With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry, the problem of cost has increased. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment.
Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding In May , one game project was reported to have a development staff of A phenomenon of additional game content at a later date, often for additional funds, began with digital video game distribution known as downloadable content DLC.
New gameplay modes can also become available, for instance, Call of Duty and its zombie modes,    a multiplayer mode for Mushroom Wars or a higher difficulty level for Metro: A variation of downloadable content is expansion packs.
The expansion added new weapons, new maps, and higher levels, and remade old missions. Expansions are added to the base game to help prolong the life of the game itself until the company is able to produce a sequel or a new game altogether.
Some developers make games and add expansions later, so that they could see what additions the players would like to have.
Many games produced for the PC are designed such that technically oriented consumers can modify the game.
These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. Developers such as id Software , Valve Corporation , Crytek , Bethesda , Epic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with some of the development tools used to make the game, along with documentation to assist mod developers.
The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they may be a factor in the commercial success of some games.
Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes and hidden spots implemented by the game developers,   modification of game code by third parties,   or players exploiting a software glitch.
Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer. Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games.
This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline.
Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction. In some cases publishers will release updates referred to as patches to repair glitches.
Sometimes a glitch may be beneficial to the player; these are often referred to as exploits. Easter eggs are hidden messages or jokes left in games by developers that are not part of the main game.
The results can vary from a simple printed message or image, to a page of programmer credits or a small videogame hidden inside an otherwise serious piece of software.
Videogame cheat codes are a specific type of Easter egg, in which entering a secret command will unlock special powers or new levels for the player.
Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities.
The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama".
That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction.
Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck , a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek , arguing for the video game as a medium in which the player is allowed to become another person, and to act out in another world.
Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys.
Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay.
While many games rely on emergent principles , video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game.
The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player.
In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track: The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.
An emulator is a program that replicates the behavior of a video game console , allowing games to run on a different platform from the original hardware.
Emulators exist for PCs , smartphones and consoles other than the original. Emulators are generally used to play old games, hack existing games , translate unreleased games in a specific region , or add enhanced features to games like improved graphics, speed up or down, bypass regional lockouts, or online multiplayer support.
Some manufacturers have released official emulators for their own consoles. Bleem , creating an emulator for a proprietary video game console is legal.
The age group among male players has expanded significantly in the 25—40 age group. For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between men and women.
More recently there has been a growing segment of female players engaged with the aggressive style of games historically considered to fall within traditionally male genres e.
One survey of over game developers returned responses from only 2. While the market for teen and young adult men is still a strong market, it is the other demographics which are posting significant growth.
A academic study, based on a survey answered by 10, gamers, identified the gaymers gamers that identify as gay as a demographic group.
Video game culture is a worldwide new media subculture formed around video games and game playing. As computer and video games have increased in popularity over time, they have had a significant influence on popular culture.
Video game culture has also evolved over time hand in hand with internet culture as well as the increasing popularity of mobile games. Many people who play video games identify as gamers , which can mean anything from someone who enjoys games to someone who is passionate about it.
As video games become more social with multiplayer and online capability , gamers find themselves in growing social networks.
Gaming can both be entertainment as well as competition, as a new trend known as electronic sports is becoming more widely accepted.
In the s, video games and discussions of video game trends and topics can be seen in social media , politics, television, film and music. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively, sometimes in Electronic Sports , or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating.
Tennis for Two , arguably the first video game, was a two player game, as was its successor Pong. The first commercially available game console, the Magnavox Odyssey , had two controller inputs.
Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs. Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as 12 inputs with additional adapters, such as the Multitap.
Multiplayer arcade games typically feature play for two to four players, sometimes tilting the monitor on its back for a top-down viewing experience allowing players to sit opposite one another.
Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from Atari and Commodore both regularly featured at least two game ports.
PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations.
PCs typically had either one or no game ports at all. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or MUDs that were played remotely on a dedicated server.
Massively multiplayer online game MMOs can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; Eve Online set a record with 65, players on a single server in It has been shown that action video game players have better hand—eye coordination and visuo-motor skills , such as their resistance to distraction , their sensitivity to information in the peripheral vision and their ability to count briefly presented objects, than nonplayers.
To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them.
They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating and eventually mastering a highly complex system with many variables.
This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function.
Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books.
Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U.
Army has deployed machines such as the PackBot and UAV vehicles, which make use of a game-style hand controller to make it more familiar for young people.
A study of 33 laparoscopic surgeons found that those who played video games were 27 percent faster at advanced surgical procedures and made 37 percent fewer errors compared to those who did not play video games.
A second study of laparoscopic surgeons 82 percent men; 18 percent women also showed that surgeons who played video games requiring spatial skills and hand dexterity and then performed a drill testing these skills were significantly faster at their first attempt and across all 10 trials than the surgeons who did not play the video games first.
An experiment carried out by Richard De Lisi and Jennifer Woldorf demonstrates the positive effect that video games may have on spatial skills.
De Lisi and Woldorf took two groups of third graders, one control group and one experiment group. Both groups took a paper-and-pencil test of mental rotation skills.
After this test, the experiment group only played 11 sessions of the game Tetris. This game was chosen as it requires mental rotation. After this game, both groups took the test again.
The result showed that the scores of the experiment group raised higher than that of the control group, thereby confirming this theory. The research showing benefits from action games has been questioned due to methodological shortcomings, such as recruitment strategies and selection bias, potential placebo effects, and lack of baseline improvements in control groups.
Like other media, such as rock music notably heavy metal music and gangsta rap , video games have been the subject of objections, controversies and censorship, for instance because of depictions of violence, criminal activities, sexual themes, alcohol , tobacco and other drugs , propaganda, profanity or advertisements.
Claims that some video games cause addiction or violent behavior continue to be made and to be disputed.
There have been a number of societal and scientific arguments about whether the content of video games change the behavior and attitudes of a player, and whether this is reflected in video game culture overall.
Since the early s, advocates of video games have emphasized their use as an expressive medium , arguing for their protection under the laws governing freedom of speech and also as an educational tool.
Detractors argue that video games are harmful and therefore should be subject to legislative oversight and restrictions.
The positive and negative characteristics and effects of video games are the subject of scientific study.
Results of investigations into links between video games and addiction , aggression , violence, social development , and a variety of stereotyping and sexual morality issues are debated.
In , the World Health Organization declared " gaming disorder " a mental disorder for people who are addicted to video games. In spite of the negative effects of video games, certain studies indicate that they may have value in terms of academic performance, perhaps because of the skills that are developed in the process.
As summarized by The Guardian ,  the study published in the International Journal of Communication "found that students who played online games almost every day scored 15 points above average in maths and reading tests and 17 points above average in science.
In an interview with CNN, Edward Castronova , a professor of Telecommunications at Indiana University Bloomington said he was not surprised by the outcome of the Australian study but also discussed the issue of causal connection.
Video games have also been proven to raise self-esteem and build confidence. It gives people an opportunity to do things that they cannot do offline, and to discover new things about themselves.
There is a social aspect to gaming as well — research has shown that a third of video game players make good friends online. As well as that, video games are also considered to be therapeutic as it helps to relieve stress.
Self-determination theory SDT is a macro theory of human motivation based around competence, autonomy, and relatedness to facilitate positive outcomes.
The ability to create an ideal image of ones self and being given multiple options to change that image gives a sense of satisfaction. This topic has much controversy; it is unknown whether this freedom can be beneficial to ones character or detrimental.
With increased game usage, a players can become too invested in a fictionally generated character, where the desire to look that way overpowers the enjoyment of the game.
Problems that arise based on character design may be link to personality disorders. Cognitive skills can be enhanced through repetition of puzzles , memory games, spatial abilities and attention control.
Many of these skills can be translated to reality and problem solving. This allows the player to learn from mistakes and fully understand how and why a solution to a problem may work.
Some researchers believe that continual exposure to challenges may lead players to develop greater persistence over time after a study was shown that frequent players spent more time on puzzles in task that did not involve video games.
In a study that followed students through school, students that played video games showed higher levels of problem solving than students who did not.
Time being a factor for problem solving led to different conclusions in the different studies. See video game controversies for more.
Online gaming being on the rise allows for video game players to communicate and work together in order to accomplish a certain task.
Being able to work as a group in a game translates well to reality and jobs, where people must work together to accomplish a task.
Research on players in violent and non-violent games show similar results, where the players relations improved to improve synergy.
With the introduction of Wii Fit and VR virtual reality , exergame popularity has been increasing, allowing video game players to experience more active rather than sedentary game play.
Due to exergaming being relatively new, there is still much to be researched. No major differences were seen in tests with children that played on the Wii vs.
Video game laws vary from country to country. Console manufacturers usually exercise tight control over the games that are published on their systems, so unusual or special-interest games are more likely to appear as PC games.
Free, casual, and browser-based games are usually played on available computers, mobile phones, tablet computers or PDAs.
Various organisations in different regions are responsible for giving content ratings to video games. For example, a game might be rated "T" for "Teen" if the game contained obscene words or violence.
If a game contains explicit violence or sexual themes, it is likely to receive an M for "Mature" rating, which means that no one under 17 should play it.
There are no laws that prohibit children from purchasing "M" rated games in the United States. Laws attempting to prohibit minors from purchasing "M" rated games were established in California, Illinois , Michigan , Minnesota , and Louisiana , but all were overturned on the grounds that these laws violated the First Amendment.
One of the most controversial games of all time, Manhunt 2 by Rockstar Studios, was given an AO rating by the ESRB until Rockstar could make the content more suitable for a mature audience.
Iceland is expected to join soon, as are the 10 EU accession states. The PEGI ratings are legally binding in Vienna and it is a criminal offence to sell a game to someone if it is rated above their age.
Instead, they adopt their own system of certification which is required by law. The Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle USK checks every game before release and assigns an age rating to it — either none white , 6 years of age yellow , 12 years of age green , 16 years of age blue or 18 years of age red.
It is forbidden for anyone, retailers, friends or parents alike, to allow a child access to a game for which he or she is underage.
It is considered a felony to supply these games to a child. The Computer Entertainment Rating Organization CERO that rates video games and PC games except dating sims , visual novels , and eroge in Japan with levels of rating that informs the customer of the nature of the product and for what age group it is suitable.
The research firm anticipated that Asia would soon overtake North America as the largest video game market due to the strong growth of free-to-play and mobile games.
Sales of different types of games vary widely between countries due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase much more handheld games than console games and especially PC games , with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes.
Computer games are also popular in China. Gaming conventions are an important showcase of the industry. Some publishers, developers and technology producers also host their own regular conventions, with BlizzCon , QuakeCon , Nvision and the X shows being prominent examples.
Short for electronic sports, are video game competitions played most by professional players individually or in teams that gained popularity from the late s, the most common genres are fighting , first-person shooter FPS , multiplayer online battle arena MOBA and real-time strategy.
There are certain games that are made for just competitive multiplayer purposes. With those type of games, players focus entirely one choosing the right character or obtaining the right equipment in the game to help them when facing other players.
Tournaments are held so that people in the area or from different regions can play against other players of the same game and see who is the best.
The players that compete in these tournaments are given a rank depending on their skill level in the game that they choose to play in and face other players that play that game.
The players that also compete are mostly called professional players for the fact that they have played the game they are competing in for many, long hours.
Those players have been able to come up with different strategies for facing different characters. The professional players are able to pick a character to their liking and be able to master how to use that character very effectively.
With strategy games , players tend to know how to get resources quick and are able to make quick decisions about where their troops are to be deployed and what kind of troops to create.
Creators will nearly always copyright their games. Laws that define copyright, and the rights that are conveyed over a video game, vary from country to country.
Usually a fair use copyright clause allows consumers some ancillary rights, such as for a player of the game to stream a game online.
This is a vague area in copyright law, as these laws predate the advent of video games. This means that rightsholders often must define what they will allow a consumer to do with the video game.
The Museum of Modern Art has added a total of 20 video games and one video game console to its permanent Architecture and Design Collection since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Video Games disambiguation. Arcade video games Best-selling video games Best-selling video game franchises Highest-grossing video game franchises Most-played video games by player count Most-played mobile games by player count Highest-grossing arcade games Video games considered among the best Game of the Year awards Video games notable for negative reception.
History of video games. Early history of video games. Educational video games and Educational software. Video game industry practices.
Video game console emulator. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
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Women and video games. Race and video games. Video game behavioral effects. Video game content rating system. Video game industry , List of best-selling video games , and Golden age of arcade video games.
List of gaming conventions. Copyright and video games. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original on 23 July Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 3 July Introduction to Game Development.
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Archived from the original PDF on 28 February Only the future will tell if the design process ever crosses the Pacific as efficiently as the container ships and the letters of credit now do.
The gaming industry as it now exists formed around the same time back in the late 70s early 80s - there were a small number of influential people in programming.
Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 26 April The success was also driven by videogame sales - the machines were originally marketed as an educational tool but you ensured titles were ready at launch.
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